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Table 4 Effect of ‘part of the day’ (morning or afternoon), ‘round of tests’ (first, second or third), ‘sex’ (female or male), ‘social context’ (individual, unfamiliar, familiar), ‘hour’ (first or second hour of the test) and interaction between ‘social context’ and ‘hour’ on number of following bouts recorded in one hour

From: House sparrows’ (Passer domesticus) behaviour in a novel environment is modulated by social context and familiarity in a sex-specific manner

Fixed effect Comparison Estimate 2% CI 98% CI P value
Part of the day Morning vs afternoon 0.043 −0.029 0.116 0.221
Sex Female vs male 0.007 −0.085 0.098 0.877
Hour Second vs first −0.063 −0.089 − 0.037 <.0001
Round First vs second 0.060 −0.033 0.154 0.259
  First vs third 0.121 0.024 0.219 0.007
  Second vs third 0.061 −0.040 0.162 0.307
Social context Unfamiliar vs familiar 0.059 0.001 0.121 0.045
Social context × hour First hour: unfamiliar vs familiar 0.074 0.003 0.144 0.032
Second hour: unfamiliar vs familiar 0.018 −0.045 0.081 0.554
Hour × treatment Familiar: second hour vs first hour −0.035 −0.064 − 0.006 0.014
Unfamiliar: second hour vs first hour −0.091 −0.134 − 0.048 <.0001
Random effect   Variance ± SE   
Individual identity   0.008 ± 0.087   
Test   0.007 ± 0.085   
  1. Coefficients and 96% confidence intervals are presented; statistically significant comparisons (zero is not included in the interval) are in bold. P values obtained with Tukey method adjusted for multiple comparisons. Results are in the log (not in the response) scale. ‘Individual identity’ and ‘test’ are fitted as random effects; variances associated with them are shown