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Table 3 Effect of ‘part of the day’ (morning or afternoon), ‘round of tests’ (first, second or third), ‘sex’ (female or male), ‘social context’ (individual, unfamiliar, familiar) and interaction between ‘social context’ and ‘sex’ on number of sectors visited

From: House sparrows’ (Passer domesticus) behaviour in a novel environment is modulated by social context and familiarity in a sex-specific manner

Fixed effect Comparison Estimate 2% CI 98% CI P value
Part of the day Morning vs afternoon −0.328 −0.542 −0.113 0.002
Sex Female vs male 0.313 −0.040 0.665 0.069
Round First vs second −0.370 −0.609 − 0.130 0.005
First vs third −0.642 −0.882 − 0.403 <.0001
Second vs third −0.272 −0.512 − 0.032 0.0161
Social context Individual vs unfamiliar 0.284 0.044 0.524 0.011
Individual vs familiar 0.268 0.031 0.506 0.017
Familiar vs unfamiliar −0.016 −0.255 0.222 0.985
Sex × social context Individual: female vs male 0.286 −0.136 0.708 0.165
Unfamiliar: female vs male 0.455 0.031 0.880 0.028
Familiar: female vs male 0.197 −0.224 0.618 0.337
Social context × sex Female: individual vs unfamiliar 0.199 −0.138 0.536 0.3215
Female: individual vs familiar 0.313 −0.024 0.649 0.0621
Female: familiar vs unfamiliar 0.113 −0.223 0.450 0.6917
Male: individual vs unfamiliar 0.369 0.028 0.709 0.023
Male: individual vs familiar 0.224 −0.111 0.558 0.236
Male: familiar vs unfamiliar −0.145 −0.483 0.193 0.549
Random effect   Variance ± SE   
Individual identity   0.552 ± 0.743   
  1. Coefficients and 96% confidence intervals are presented; statistically significant comparisons (zero is not included in the interval) are in bold. P values obtained with Tukey method adjusted for multiple comparisons. Results are in the log (not in the response) scale. ‘Individual identity’ is fitted as random effect; variance associated with it is shown