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Table 2 Effect of ‘part of the day’ (morning or afternoon), ‘round of tests’ (first, second or third), ‘sex’ (female or male), ‘social context’ (individual, unfamiliar, familiar) and interaction between ‘social context’ and ‘sex’ on latency to forage

From: House sparrows’ (Passer domesticus) behaviour in a novel environment is modulated by social context and familiarity in a sex-specific manner

Fixed effect Comparison Estimate 2% CI 98% CI P value
Part of the day Morning vs afternoon −0.125 − 0.431 0.181 0.403
Sex Female vs male −0.264 − 0.667 0.137 0.177
Round First vs second 0.010 −0.358 0.377 0.998
First vs third −0.318 − 0.686 0.049 0.088
Second vs third −0.328 −0.700 0.044 0.082
Social context Individual vs unfamiliar −0.711 −1.075 − 0.348 0.0001
Individual vs familiar −0.614 −0.974 − 0.253 0.0001
Familiar vs unfamiliar 0.098 −0.270 0.465 0.534
Sex × social context Individual: female vs male 0.060 −0.467 0.587 0.815
Unfamiliar: female vs male −0.692 −1.234 − 0.149 0.009
Familiar: female vs male −0.162 − 0.698 0.374 0.534
Social context × sex Female: individual vs unfamiliar −0.336 − 0.842 0.171 0.241
Female: individual vs familiar −0.503 −1.007 −0.002 0.041
Female: familiar vs unfamiliar −0.167 −0.687 0.354 0.716
Male: individual vs unfamiliar −1.087 −1.608 −0.567 <.0001
Male: individual vs familiar −0.725 −1.236 −0.214 0.0016
Male: familiar vs unfamiliar 0.362 −0.155 0.880 0.205
Random effect   Variance ± SE   
Individual identity   0.495 ± 0.703   
  1. Coefficients and 96% confidence intervals are presented; statistically significant comparisons (zero is not included in the interval) are in bold. P values obtained with Tukey method adjusted for multiple comparisons. Results are in the log (not in the response) scale. ‘Individual identity’ is fitted as random effect; we show the variance associated with it