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Table 1 Effect of ‘part of the day’ (morning or afternoon), ‘round of tests’ (first, second or third), ‘sex’ (female or male), ‘social context’ (individual, unfamiliar, familiar) and interaction between ‘social context’ and ‘sex’ on latency to touch the ground

From: House sparrows’ (Passer domesticus) behaviour in a novel environment is modulated by social context and familiarity in a sex-specific manner

Fixed effect Comparison Estimate 2% CI 98% CI P value
Part of the day Morning vs afternoon − 0.183 − 0.290 − 0.076 0.0004
Sex Female vs male 0.051 −0.185 0.287 0.6581
Round First vs second 0.160 0.045 0.276 0.0021
First vs third 0.200 0.085 0.315 0.0001
Second vs third 0.039 0.075 −0.154 0.6817
Social context Individual vs unfamiliar −0.114 − 0.228 0.0006 0.041
Individual vs familiar − 0.224 −0.338 − 0.109 <.0001
Familiar vs unfamiliar −0.110 −0.224 0.004 0.050
Social context × sex Female: individual vs unfamiliar 0.024 −0.136 0.185 0.9283
Female: individual vs familiar −0.170 −0.330 − 0.009 0.0283
Female: familiar vs unfamiliar 0.194 0.031 0.356 0.0101
Male: individual vs unfamiliar −0.252 −0.413 − 0.089 0.0005
Male: individual vs familiar −0.278 −0.440 − 0.116 0.0001
Male: familiar vs unfamiliar 0.026 −0.135 0.188 0.9163
Sex × social context Individual: female vs male 0.077 −0.183 0.338 0.815
Unfamiliar: female vs male −0.199 −0.460 0.063 0.009
Familiar: female vs male −0.031 −0.292 0.230 0.534
Random effect   Variance ± SE   
Individual identity   0.090 ± 0.303   
  1. Coefficients and 96% confidence intervals are presented; statistically significant comparisons (zero is not included in the interval) are in bold. P values obtained with Tukey method adjusted for multiple comparisons. Results are in the log (not in the response) scale. ‘Individual identity’ is fitted as random effect; variance associated with it is shown