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Table 2 Linear mixed-effects models used to identify parameters that influenced the localization accuracy. Models were built with fixed effects alone, summed (“+”) and with interactions (“*”). The nested random effect was similar for all of the models (see “m0”). Akaike’s information criterion (AIC) was calculated to select the best statistical model, i.e. the “m2” model

From: Acoustic localization at large scales: a promising method for grey wolf monitoring

Name Fixed effects Random effect AIC
m0 1 (1|array) + (1|array:night) + (1|array:night:period) 600.62
m1 period   604.35
m2 dist   591.35
m3 areamic   602.62
m4 period+dist   594.98 period*dist   591.70
m5 period+areamic   606.31 period*areamic   604.10
m6 dist+areamic   593.26 dist*areamic   594.79
mc period+dist+areamic   596.95