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Table 1 Parameters of foraging trips used for the calculations of energy landscapes. The data correspond to Gentoo Penguin Pygoscelis papua breeding at New Island (Falkland/Malvinas Is.), during chick guard (December) in 2013 and 2014. Only the first foraging trip of each individual was included in the calculations in order to avoid individuals with more than one trip having more weight in the analyses

From: How animals distribute themselves in space: variable energy landscapes

  2013 2014
South End South End North End
Individuals tagged 16 8 8
Number of complete data sets obtained (first foraging trips) 13 4 6
Trip length [km] 131.1 ± 59.1 (67.0–281.7) 92.7 ± 64.7 (24.1–169.4) 56.9 ± 13.7 (33.8–75.5)
 t-test between seasons t = 1.113 P = 0.283  
 Mann-Whitney Rank Test between colonies   T = 24.000 P = 0.749
Maximum distance from colony [km] 69.1 ± 9.8 (51.3–87.6) 49.6 ± 33.0 (13.8–89.3) 33.3 ± 17.3 (15.3–60.1)
 Mann-Whitney Rank Test between seasons T = 26.000 P = 0.282  
 t-test between colonies   t = −1.038 P = 0.330
Trip duration [min] 1811.5 ± 754.4 (770.6–2965.1) 1636.6 ± 1162.8 (320.7–3066.6) 1183.0 ± 353.4 (798.2–1650.8)
 t-test between seasons t = 0.129 P = 0.725  
 Mann-Whitney Rank Test between colonies   T = 25.000 P = 0.610
Start time of foraging (local time) 07:14:53 ± 06:14:24 (02:12:13–19:16:23) 15:07:12 ± 04:50:53 (08:10:50–18:38:50) 10:22:05 ± 08:05:17 (02:47:49–20:26:48)
 Mann-Whitney Rank Test between seasons T = 54.000 P = 0.048  
 t-test between colonies   t = 1.044 P = 0.327
  1. Sample sizes vary with respect to deployments, as not all parameters could be calculated for all individuals, mainly due to some batteries running out before the finalization of an ongoing trip. Statistically significant values are marked bold