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Table 1 Comparison of the features of different major 3D imaging systems used in zoological studies. The features of the different methods are based on our knowledge of the different pieces of equipment established by our previous studies; various statistics from recent papers are also referenced

From: Visualization of the 3D structures of small organisms via LED-SIM

  Lateral resolution Suitable sample type Estimated cost (US$) Suitable sample size Imaging light source Sample preparation Imaging time Imaging color
LED-SIM 0.1 μm Dry or wet ~200,000 <10 mm LED Fast <10 min Pseudo color
Laser-SIM 0.1 μm Dry or wet 550,000–650,000 <10 mm Laser Fast <10 min Pseudo color
CLSM 0.2 μm Dry or wet 500,000–700,000 <10 mm Laser Medium 30 min–1 h Pseudo color
SPIM 0.2 μm Dry or wet 300,000–500,000 <10 mm Laser Medium <10 min Pseudo color
Micro-CT 0.5–5 μm Dry or wet 500,000–700,000 1–200 mm X-ray Medium 2–24 h Black and white
FIB/SBF-SEM 4–7 nm Dry 800,000–900,000 <1 mm Electron and ion beam Medium 8–9 h Black and white
MRI 20 μm Wet 600,000–800,000 10–50 mm Radio frequency Medium ~24 h Pseudo color