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Table 1 Cross Convergent Mapping (11) analyses of the causation between different ecophysiological variables. Standard deviation of all the five-minutes normal heart beat interval means (SDANN), heart rate (HR), ambient temperature (TA), and body temperature (Tb). The library length of the association ‘L’ was set to 100 for all analyses and ρ is the range of Pearson correlation coefficients for the tested relationship during the defined period (Column 1)

From: Drivers of hibernation in the brown bear

Period Decription Relationship tested P- value ρ
Period 1 From 25 days before den entry (the day activity starts to drop) until den entry SDANN causes HR 0.1 0.1–0.7
Period 2 30 days following the date of den entry SDANN causes Tb 0.05 0.8–0.9
Period 2 30 days following the date of den entry TA causes Tb 0.1 0.3–0.4
Period 3 Between 63 to 25 days before the date of den exit TA causes Tb 0.06 0.7–0.8
Period 3 Between 63 to 25 days before the date of den exit SDANN causes Tb 0.9 0.1–0.5
Period 3 Between 63 to 25 days before the date of den exit Tb drives HR 0.07  
Period 4 From 25 days before den exit to the den exit date SDANN causes Tb 0.01 0.2–0.8
Period 4 From 25 days before den exit to the den exit date SDANN causes HR 0.03 0.3–0.8
Period 4 From 25 days before den exit to the den exit date TA causes Tb 0.3 0.1–0.4
Period 5 From 10 days before den exit to the den exit date Activity causes Tb 0.05 0.5–0.8