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Fig. 3 | Frontiers in Zoology

Fig. 3

From: Mandible evolution in the Scarabaeinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) and adaptations to coprophagous habits

Fig. 3

Morphological comparison of the mandible from three feeding types (omnivory, phytophagy and coprophagy) based on 3D models. Scarabaeinae: Kheper devotus (ah); Dynastinae: Allomyrina dichotoma (ip); Trogidae: Trox sp. (qx). Lateral view (a, b, i, j, q, r); dorsal view (c, k, s); ventral view (d, l, t); cross-sections in different positions (eh, mp, ux; percentages indicate the cross-sectional area of each position divided by the top 4/6 position)

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