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Fig. 4 | Frontiers in Zoology

Fig. 4

From: Neurons of self-defence: neuronal innervation of the exocrine defence glands in stick insects

Fig. 4

Schematics showing the different nerves studied in axonal tracing experiments. Dotted lines indicate the positions where nerves were cut for tracing experiments. Black arrows indicate the direction in which axons were filled. a Anterograde tracing of nerves to investigate the innervation of the defence gland by nerves from the suboesophageal ganglion (SOG) and prothoracic ganglion (T1). Only one nerve at a time was cut and filled in individual preparations. b Anterograde tracing of whole connectives between suboesophageal ganglion (SOG) and prothoracic ganglion (T1) to test for the innervation of defence glands by prothoracic neurons through the N. anterior SOG. Soma position and axon of a prothoracic neuron is indicated for one neuron (occurring bilaterally). The connectives were cut posteriorly to the suboesophageal ganglion and then filled simultaneously in anterograde direction, indicated by grey arrows. c Retrograde tracing to reveal the neurons innervating the defence gland through the intersegmental nerve complex. The thin nerve branches of the joint N. posterior SOG, N. anterior T1 and N. transversus were cut close to the defence gland. N. anterior SOG was cut midway between ganglia and the glands

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