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Table 2 Common analytical tools and their basic assumptions

From: iDNA from terrestrial haematophagous leeches as a wildlife surveying and monitoring tool – prospects, pitfalls and avenues to be developed

  Presence Occupancy modelling Spatial capture-recapture
Goal/Measure Is a particular species present? Probability of occurrence/distribution; multi-species occupancy modelling for species richness Abundance/density
Important assumptions   Independence of samples (both spatial and temporal); occupancy state at each site remains constant during the study (‘closure assumption’); for multi-species occupancy, sampling of different species must be independent of each other Population closure; detections are independent among individuals
Data requirements Stratified sampling of different habitat types to maximize detection probability At least 20 sites, at least some (random) with repeated visits Individuals are identifiable; several (at the very least 5) individuals, recaptures at different locations
Key literature   MacKenzie DI, Nichols JD, Hines JE, Knutson MG and Franklin AB [52] Royle JA, Chandler RB, Sollmann R and Gardner B [62]