Long-term effects of treatment on potential biomarkers. (a) Telomere length, (b) plasma oxidative damage, (c) plasma non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity, (d) red blood cell glutathione peroxidase, (e) Scaled Mass Index, (f) locomotor activity, and plasma concentrations of (g) baseline corticosterone, (h) stress-induced corticosterone, (i) difference in corticosterone between stress-induced levels and concentrations after injection of dexamethasone (please note that positive values indicate strong (+) negative feedback whereas negative values show weak (−) negative feedback , see also arrow), (k) corticosterone after injection of ACTH. Open circles: control group (n = 20), filled circles: stress-exposed group (n = 12). All data are mean ± 1SEM. Results as derived from LMMs (see text): * interaction time*treament p < 0.05, ^ treatment p < 0.05, # time p < 0.05.