'Rope ladder-like' ventral nervous system of H. dujardini . Anti-β-tubulin immunolabeling is shown in A, C-G. DAPI counterstaining is shown in A, D-G. Scale bars equal 25 μm. (A) Maximum projection of brain and ventral nervous system. Each body segment includes a ventral ganglion. The inner connective extends from the anterior-most ventral ganglion to the ventral brain lobe, where a commissure (co*) transverses the midline. The position of the mouth is indicated. (B) DIC micrograph of the head. (C) Depth-coded maximum-projection of confocal Z-series of specimen shown in B. The brain and first ganglion can be seen. (D-E) Individual slices of the Z-series used to produce C. Inset in E shows a maximum projection magnification of the ganglion; fibrous commissures extend across the ganglion. (F) Maximum projection of the ganglion and a leg of the third trunk segment (same specimen as shown in A). The right leg is outlined. Arrowheads point to nerves extending from the third ganglion. (G) Maximum projection of the second, third, and anterior fourth segments (same specimen as shown in B-E). Ganglion 4 is smaller than ganglion 2 or 3. Abbreviations: ac, anterior cluster; bu, buccal tube; cn, connective; co, commissure; dc, dorsal cluster; ga, ganglion; ic, inner connective; le, leg; lg, leg ganglion; mo, mouth; ne, neurites of the mouth; oc, outer connective; ol, outer lobe; ph, pharyngeal bulb; pn, posterior nerves; so, stomach; st, stylet; vl, ventral lobe.