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Table 3 The 40 mandible landmark set

From: Semi-automatic landmark point annotation for geometric morphometrics

Landmark no. Description
1 Tip of incisor.
2 Dorsal-most point of incisive alveole.
3 Ventral-most point of diastema.
4 Anterior-most point of molar row.
5 Posterior-most point of molar row.
6 Lateral point of mandibular foramen.
7 Tip of coronoid process.
8 Anterior-most point of curve between coronoid
  and articular process.
9 Ventral-most point of curve between coronoid
  and articular process.
10 Anterior-most point of condyle.
11 Lateral-most point of condyle.
12 Posterior-most point of condyle.
13 Anterior-most point of curve between articular
  and angular process.
14 Tip of angular process.
15 Medial-most point of angular process.
16 Lateral point of masseteric crista at dorsal-most
  ventral point.
17 Lateral-most inner point of ventral border.
18 Anterior end of attachment area of transverse
  mandibular muscle.
19 Posterior-most point of incisive alveole.
20 Anterior end of masseteric crista.
  1. These landmarks were identified on the 8- and 14-element data sets described in Table 2. Landmarks 1–20 consisted of these points on the left-hand side of the specimen; landmarks 21–40 consisted of the same points on the right-hand side of the specimen.