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Table 1 The 50 skull landmark set

From: Semi-automatic landmark point annotation for geometric morphometrics

Landmark no. Description
1 Anterior end of nasal suture.
2 Posterior end of nasal suture.
3 Posterior end of frontal suture.
4 Posterior end of parietal suture.
5 Posterior-most point of occipital.
6 Dorsal-most point of foramen magnum.
7 Anterior-most point of premaxilla behind incisivi.
8 Posterior-most point of palatal suture.
9 Anterior-most medial point of occipital.
10 Anterior-most point of foramen magnum.
11 Anterior end of molar row.
12 Posterior end of molar row.
13 Tip of incisor.
14 Anterior tip of premaxilla.
15 Anterior end of incisive foramen.
16 Posterior end of incisive foramen.
17 Anterior-most dorsal point of infraorbital foramen.
18 Anterior-most lateral point of infraorbital foramen.
19 Anterior-most ventral point of infraorbital foramen.
20 Anterior-most dorsal point of orbita.
21 Anterior-most ventral point of orbita.
22 Dorsal-most point of lateral-most point of zygomatic arch.
23 Ventral-most point of lateral-most point of zygomatic arch.
24 Posterior end of orbita.
25 Anterior-most point of bulla.
26 Anterior-most point of acoustic meatus.
27 Dorsal-most point of bulla.
28 Ventral-most point of bulla.
29 Posterior-most point of bulla.
30 Dorsal end of condyle.
  1. These landmarks were identified on the 12-element data set described in Table 4. Points 11 to 30 were identified on the left-hand-side of the specimen; points 31 to 50 were the equivalent points on the right-hand side of the specimen.