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Table 1 Descriptive statistics of Asian elephants and humans (ever reproduced females)

From: Reproductive cessation and post-reproductive lifespan in Asian elephants and pre-industrial humans

  n Birth year Mean afr ± S.D Mean alr ± S.D Mean fec ± S.D Mean lifespan ± S.D pr-lifespan ± S.D
Elephant females, all 1040 1900-1993 19.85 ± 5.68 (5.30, 46.36) 32.49 ± 10.61 (7.22, 64.9) 2.62 ± 1.76 (1.0, 11.0) 38.38 ± 11.58 (8.07, 79.64) 5.89 ± 6.97 (0.00, 38.74)
Dead 320 1900-1979 19.05 ± 7.05 (5.30, 46.36) 32.52 ± 10.69 (7.22, 59.83) 2.30 ± 1.53 (1.0, 10.0) 40.40 ± 12.89 (8.07, 79.64) 7.88 ± 7.06 (0.00, 38.74)
Alive 720 1920-1993 20.10 ± 5.16 (8.00, 46.34) 32.47 ± 10.58 (8.38, 64.92) 2.77 ± 1.84 (1.0, 11.0) 37.48 ± 10.83 (10.39, 79.09) 5.00 ± 6.75 (0.00, 33.19)
Lifespan > =40 457 1911-1970 20.78 ± 6.86 (8.28, 46.36) 40.35 ± 9.16 (13.07, 64.92) 3.26 ± 2.02 (1.0, 11.0) 48.83 ± 6.87 (40.03, 79.64) 8.48 ± 8.33 (0.00, 38.74)
Lifespan > =40 + dead 154 1911-1967 21.66 ± 9.36 (8.28, 46.36) 39.77 ± 8.52 (18.92, 59.83) 2.66 ± 1.73 (1.0, 10.0) 51.09 ± 7.86 (40.03, 79.64) 11.31 ± 7.84 (0.00, 38.74)
Captive born 471 1936-1993 19.85 ± 5.68 (5.30, 46.36) 29.88 ± 9.55 (7.22, 54.00) 2.95 ± 1.93 (1.0, 10.0) 35.02 ± 10.54 (8.07, 65.11) 5.14 ± 6.68 (0.00, 34.31)
Wild born 569 1900-1986 n/a 34.65 ± 10.96 (8.38, 64.92) 2.36 ± 1.56 (1.0, 11.0) 41.16 ± 11.67 (9.46, 79.64) 6.51 ± 7.15 (0.00, 38.74)
Human females, all 5336 1595-1849 26.22 ± 5.17 (15.00, 47.00) 37.66 ± 6.27 (16.00, 52.30) 5.20 ± 3.04 (1.0, 18.0) 60.07 ± 16.50 (17.86, 100.31) 22.42 ± 15.19 (0.00, 66.18)
Dead 4529 1665-1849 26.18 ± 5.17 (15.00, 47.00) 37.35 ± 6.30 (16.00, 52.30) 5.11 ± 3.02 (1.0, 18.0) 59.78 ± 17.28 (17.86, 100.31) 22.43 ± 15.65 (0.00, 66.18)
Censored 807 1595-1849 26.45 ± 5.17 (16.00, 46.20) 39.37 ± 5.81 (17.00, 50.00) 5.76 ± 3.14 (1.0, 17.0) 61.71 ± 11.07 (20.00, 94.00) 22.35 ± 12.28 (0.00, 66.01)
Lifespan > =42 4427 1595-1849 26.50 ± 5.32 (15.00, 47.00) 38.98 ± 5.53 (17.00, 52.30) 5.53 ± 3.05 (1.0, 18.0) 65.54 ± 12.08 (42.00, 100.31) 26.56 ± 13.24 (0.00, 66.18)
  1. Afr = age at first reproduction. Alr = age at last reproduction. Fec = number of births. Values of afr, alr, fec, lifespan (age at death or censoring) and pr-lifespan represent means with standard deviations (S.D.) and in brackets minimum and maximum values. Afr can only be calculated for captive-born elephants (sample size 38–471). Dead = individuals with known death date. Alive = individuals still alive (in elephants).