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Table 1 Multiple-regression model relating poison-gland size with coloration (PCA1 factor), controlling for general body size (PCA2 factor; F 2, 27 = 3.15, p = 0.059, R2= 0.19) and for abdomen width (F 2, 27 = 4.61, p = 0.019, R2= 0.25)

From: Brighter-colored paper wasps (Polistes dominula) have larger poison glands

Effect Β F1, 27 P
Controlling for general body size (PCA2)
PCA1 0.41 5.57 0.026
PCA2 0.15 0.73 0.40
Controlling for abdomen width
PCA1 0.35 4.39 0.046
Abdomen width 0.30 3.16 0.087