Figures 38–41: Scanning electron microscope views of the branching pattern of the insectan trachea system, from the grasshopper, Chrotogonus senegalensis . Figures 38–40: In some areas, especially close to the spiracles, many branches originate from a parent segment (dashed circles) (Figures 38, 39) while in other cases, single branches (continuous circles) derive from an original part. TT, transverse trachea; LT, longitudinal trachea; MT, Malphigian tubules. Figure 41: Terminal trachea (Tr) giving rise to many terminal tracheoles (stars) which enter the flight muscle (FM). Dashed arch, shows the expansive part of the flight muscle which is supplied with air by a single terminal trachea. Scale bars: Figure 38, 1.5 mm; Figure 39, 1 mm; Figure 40, 0.5 mm; Figure 41, 0.5 mm. From Maina .