Influence of 1-month winning/losing experience on the importance of 1-day winning/losing experience. The importance of the 1-day winning (winner effect) or losing (loser effect) experience on the probability of (A) initiating gill displays, (B) initiating attacks and (C) winning non-escalated contests when both individuals of a contest pair were subjected to either winning or losing experience treatment one month prior to Test Day. The shaded portion of the bars represents the probability that the focal individual would carry out the relevant behavior (initiate displays, initiate attacks or win non-escalated contests) and the clear portion shows the probability for its control opponent. (The focal individual is the contestant that received a winning or a losing experience one day prior to Test Day; its control opponent is the animal that received no experience one day prior to Test Day.) NS P > 0.05; * P ≤ 0.05; ** P ≤ 0.01; *** P ≤ 0.001; binomial test for whether the behavior concerned showed a significant winner or loser effect for the 1-month dominant or subordinate experience. The sample size for each bar is presented on the bottom of the bar. (Sample sizes differ because not all contests involved all behaviors).