Phylogenetic relationships and population history among burrowing parrot ( Cyanoliseus patagonus ) populations. A. 80% majority-rule maximum likelihood phylogeny of 51 mitochondrial haplotypes. Nodal dates were determined assuming the coalescence of all lineages by at least 126 kya. The phylogeny was rooted by a Diopsittaca nobilis individual. B. A median-joining network showing the unrooted relatedness between haplotypes. Distances are proportional to the number of mutational changes and the size of each circle is proportional to haplotype frequency. The smallest grey circles denote unsampled haplotypes invoked by the median-joining algorithm. C. Mismatch distributions, the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis of a sudden population expansion p(SSD) and Fu's Fs statistic for all four populations. All clades and haplotypes are colour-coded according to Figure 1. Haplotypes belonging to the morphological sub-species conlara according to [34, 39] are marked with "C" in panel A and are coloured green in panel B. Haplotypes where the phenotype could be assigned to neither andinus nor patagonus with certainty are denoted with "U" in panel A and are orange in panel B. Node references are in blue alphabet.