Gas chromatograms of cuticular hydrocarbons of the parabiotic ant species. (a) Crematogaster modiglianii B2, (b) red Camponotus rufifemur R2, (c) black Camponotus rufifemur B4. Graphs were acquired with a GC-FID. Only substances beyond a chain length of 34 are shown since shorter hydrocarbons make up less than 2% of the profile. Numbers refer to table 1. *unknown, irregularly occurring substance. (d) Typical chromatogram of the cuticular steroids of Cr. modiglianii, acquired with GC-MS. Arrows indicate the steroid compounds common to both Cr. modiglianii and Ca. rufifemur. Asterisks indicate the three steroids with highly similar mass spectra used for the second Mantel test. No other steroids were present in the colony shown.