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Table 4 Forms of thelytoky and their genetic effects.

From: Single locus complementary sex determination in Hymenoptera: an "unintelligent" design?

Form of thelytoky Genetic effect Part of genome affected Example Reference
Premeiotic doubling Fixed heterozygosity All loci identical to mother Strongylogaster maculata
Neoreterus baccarum
Oecophylla longinoda
Wasmannia auropunctata
[177]
[178,179]
[180]
[176]
Second division non-sister fusion Increase in homozygosity at rate r1 Distal of crossing-overs Venturia canescens
Apis mellifera capensis
Cataglyphis cursor
[181,182]
[101,183,184]
[103]
Second division sister fusion Increase in homozygosity at rate 1–2r Proximal of crossing-overs Diprion polytonum
Pristiphora rufipes
Aphytis mytilaspides
[24]
[185]
[186]
Gamete duplication Complete homozygosity All loci Trichogramma spp.
Muscidifurax uniraptor
Diplolepis rosae
Diplolepis spinosissimae
Leptopilina clavipes
[89]
[96]
[99]
[98]
[97]
  1. 1 r = recombination rate, or map distance between a locus and its centromere [102].