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Table 4 Forms of thelytoky and their genetic effects.

From: Single locus complementary sex determination in Hymenoptera: an "unintelligent" design?

Form of thelytoky Genetic effect Part of genome affected Example Reference
Premeiotic doubling Fixed heterozygosity All loci identical to mother Strongylogaster maculata
Neoreterus baccarum
Oecophylla longinoda
Wasmannia auropunctata
Second division non-sister fusion Increase in homozygosity at rate r1 Distal of crossing-overs Venturia canescens
Apis mellifera capensis
Cataglyphis cursor
Second division sister fusion Increase in homozygosity at rate 1–2r Proximal of crossing-overs Diprion polytonum
Pristiphora rufipes
Aphytis mytilaspides
Gamete duplication Complete homozygosity All loci Trichogramma spp.
Muscidifurax uniraptor
Diplolepis rosae
Diplolepis spinosissimae
Leptopilina clavipes
  1. 1 r = recombination rate, or map distance between a locus and its centromere [102].