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Table 1 Life history parameters of 4 songbird species that may have independently evolved similar life-histories, but different control mechanisms for similar behavior (T= testosterone, breed= breeding, non-breed= non-breeding, Rmale-male= androgen responsiveness to male-male interactions).

From: Endocrine mechanisms, behavioral phenotypes and plasticity: known relationships and open questions

  black redstart European robin European stonechat western song sparrow
migration yes yes yes/no no
territoriality breed/non-breed breed/non-breed breed/non-breed breed/non-breed
occurrence of song breed/non-breed breed/(non-breed) breed/(non-breed) breed/non-breed
egg-laying period 3-4 months 3-4 months 3-4 months 3-4 months
Rmale-male no no no* yes
breeding aggression T-dependent no yes yes yes**
non-breed aggression T-dependent no*** no no yes
linearity between behavior and T no no no* ?
  1. [55, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154.]* Apfelbeck, Villavicencio, Flinks and Goymann, unpublished data;** as indicated by testosterone implants;***Goymann, Apfelbeck, Occasio and Windley, unpublished data.