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Table 1 Endocrinological and behavioural consequences of domestication: Comparison between domestic (Cavia apera f. porcellus) and wild guinea pigs (Cavia aperea).

From: Domestication affects the structure, development and stability of biobehavioural profiles

    Comparison domestic/wild animals References
Endocrine parameters endocrine stress response Basal cortisol activity D=W 27,28,29,32
   HPA reactivity (cortisol) D<W 27,28,29,32
   Basal SAM activity D=W 28
   (TH activity)   
   SAM reactivity D<W 27,28,29
   (catecholamines)   
  gonadal hormones Basal HPG activity (testosterone) D>W 28,32
Behaviour Courtship Infantile not exhibited 33
   Adolescent D>W 32
   Adult D>W 27,28,29
  Sociopositive Infantile D>W 33
   Adolescent D>W 32
   Adult D>W 27,28,29
  Aggressive Infantile not exhibited 33
   Adolescent not studied
   Adult D<W 27,28,29
  Attentive Infantile D<W 33
   Adolescent not studied
   Adult D<W 27,28,29
  Vocalization Infantile not studied
   Adolescent not studied
   Adult D>W 28
  Exploration Infantile not studied
   Adolescent D<W 32
   Adult D<W 27,28,29
  Risk-taking Infantile not studied
   Adolescent D<W 32
   Adult not studied
  Anxiety-like Infantile not studied
   Adolescent D>W 32
   Adult not studied
  Play Infantile D=W 33
   Adolescent not studied
   Adult D>W 94
  Learning and memory Infantile not studied
   Adolescent not studied
   adult D>W 30,77
  Maternal behaviour towards offspring D>W 33
  1. HPA = hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical-system; SAM = sympathetic-adrenomedullary-system; HPG = hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal-system, TH = tyrosine hydroxylase D = domestic guinea pigs, W = wild cavies