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Table 3 Dependence of breeding parameters (2010–2012, N= 157) on the urban gradient (measured as percentage of sealed soil in r = 500 m around the nest site) as fixed effect in a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM)

From: Hard times in the city – attractive nest sites but insufficient food supply lead to low reproduction rates in a bird of prey

Breeding parameter Estimate SE Z-value Pr(>|z|) R2for GLMM Sign.
Clutch size ( N  = 138)      4.5  
Laying date −0.01 0.00 −2.48 0.0132   *
(Intercept) 1.54 0.04 38.80 <0.0001   ***
Hatching rate      15.44  
Laying date −0.04 0.01 −2.94 0.0033   **
Sealed soil −2.40 1.07 −2.23 0.0255   *
(Intercept) 2.54 0.78 3.24 0.0012   **
Fledging rate      16.04  
Laying date −0.04 0.02 −2.06 0.0399   *
Sealed soil −2.13 1.25 −1.71 0.0882  
(Intercept) 2.60 0.99 2.62 0.0087   **
Fledged brood size      32.31  
Laying date −0.02 0.00 −4.54 <0.0001   ***
Sealed soil −0.85 0.34 −2.48 0.0131   *
(Intercept) 1.26 0.25 5.04 <0.0001   ***
  1. The nest site ID and the study year were included as random factors. The error family was chosen according to the type of response variable.
  2. Note:’ data presented as residuals with the study year.
  3. Significance codes: ‘***’ 0.001, ‘**’ 0.01, ‘*’ 0.05, ‘•’ <0.1.