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Table 2 Dependence of breeding time (2010–2012) on the urban gradient (measured as percentage of sealed soil in r = 500 m around the nest site) and nearest neighbour distance (NND) as fixed effect in a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM)

From: Hard times in the city – attractive nest sites but insufficient food supply lead to low reproduction rates in a bird of prey

Breeding time Estimate SE T-value Pr(>|t|) expl.dev.(%) Sign.
Arrival date ( N  = 333)       
Sealed soil −12.36 6.47 −1.91 0.0568 54.74
NND −2.49 2.90 −0.86 0.3920 13.85 NS
(Intercept) 272.53 14.33 19.01 <0.0001   ***
Laying date ( N  = 157)       
Sealed soil 7.95 6.79 1.17 0.2440 40.68 NS
(Intercept) 28.53 4.86 5.85 <0.0001   ***
  1. The nest site ID and the study year were included as random factors. The error family was chosen according to the type of response variable as Gaussian family and identity link function. Explanatory deviance (in %) is given for each fixed effect.
  2. Note:’ data presented as residuals with the study year, ‘’ log transformed.
  3. Significance codes: ‘***’ 0.001, ‘•’ <0.1, ‘NS’ not significant.