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Table 5 Models of trait co-diversification fit to each trait alongside body mass or hindlimb length

From: Scale effects and morphological diversification in hindlimb segment mass proportions in neognath birds

   Model λ Model δ  
Trait N λ λ C. L. L Model C.L. δ δ C.L. L Model C.L. R
Body mass scaling      
Thigh mass 38 0.82 0.200, 1.000 19.63 -8.727, 2.935 3.00 1.606, 3.000 16.57 -5.071, 3.182 -6.12
Shank mass 38 0.80 0.091, 1.000 13.25 -9.149, 3.038 3.00 1.645, 3.000 9.98 -5.074, 2.586 -6.54
Pes mass 38 0.76 0.000, 1.000 6.44 -10.816, 2.840 3.00 1.598, 3.000 3.86 -4.755, 3.067 -5.16
Tars. mass 36 1.00 0.821, 1.000 -32.78 -0.932, 3.064 1.29 0.675, 3.000 -32.70 -3.670, 0.952 0.16
Digit mass 36 1.00 0.796, 1.000 -30.95 -0.618, 3.123 1.42 0.785, 3.000 -30.78 -3.514, 1.226 0.34
Hindlimb length scaling      
Thigh mass 35 0.94 0.596, 1.000 -4.24 -2.489, 2.840 2.96 1.492, 3.000 -2.61 -4.072, 2.831 3.26
Shank mass 35 0.94 0.696, 1.000 4.99 -2.557, 3.085 2.72 1.507, 3.000 5.96 -4.242, 2.777 1.94
Pes mass 35 0.77 0.000, 1.000 7.96 -7.367, 2.382 3.00 1.539, 3.000 8.68 -4.146, 2.845 1.44
Tars. mass 33 1.00 0.732, 1.000 -32.42 -0.674, 2.939 1.56 0.821, 3.000 -32.16 -3.223, 0.855 0.52
Digit mass 33 1.00 0.762, 1.000 -30.84 -0.528, 2.984 1.72 0.883, 3.000 -30.45 -3.682, 1.341 0.78
  1. λ and δ C.L. denotes 95% confidence limits for estimates of these parameters, L denotes log likelihood values for each model, and Model C.L. denotes the 95% confidence limits of likelihood ratios used to test each model. R denotes the observed likelihood ratio that is used as a critical value to test each model via exclusion from likelihood ratio confidence limits.