Examples of limb specializations in neognath birds. Examples are restricted to species sampled in the current study, and background colors for each color are associated with branch length colors in Figure 2. ‘Cursorial,’ ‘natatorial,’ and ‘scansorial’ denotes limbs specialized for running, swimming, and climbing, respectively. ‘Raptorial’ denotes limbs specialized for capturing prey. ‘Reduced’ refers to taxa possessing limbs that are relatively reduced in size and that exhibit a limited ability to walk and run.