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Table 2 Comparative data on the myoanatomy of Kinorhyncha from this study and available primary literature (references included)

From: Comparative myoanatomy of Echinoderes (Kinorhyncha): a comprehensive investigation by CLSM and 3D reconstruction

Species Echinoderes aquilonius Echinoderes capitatus Echinoderes dujardinii Echinoderes sp. E. dujardinii E. hispanicus E. horni E. spinifurca Antygomonas sp. Zelinkaderes floridensis Pycnophyes dentatus Pycnophyes flaveolatus Pycnophyes kielensis
Data source TEM TEM LM CLSM CLSM TEM TEM TEM TEM, CLSM
Mouth cone - 3 circular muscles - 18 longitudinal, 2 circular muscles 16 longitudinal, 8 short basal and 2 circular muscles 18 longitudinal muscles 2 circular cell basal to oos, 7 circular muscle cells basal to ios - 1 circular muscle cell basal to oos, 7 circular muscle cells basal to ios
Introvert 16 outer retractors 12 inner retractors 10 retractors reaching S.6 - 10 retractors reaching S.6, Introvert circular muscle 16 outer retractors reaching S.8 - 10 head retractors - 10 head retractors
Neck - - 1- 5 circular muscles 1 circular muscle 2 circular muscles: inner outer - - - -
Trunk - - Longitudinal: dorsal, ventral, and additional continuous fibers, Diagonal: 8 pairs Dorsoventral: S.3-11 Longitudinal: Ventromedial + Dorsolateral and additional continuous fibers, Diagonal: 8 pairs Dorsoventral: S.3-11 Longitudinal: Ventrolateral + Dorsolateral Diagonal: 9 pairs Dorsoventral: S.1-11 - - - -
Spines - - - 3 pairs LTS + 1 pair TE muscles 1pair penile spines muscles Midterminal spine muscles triangle- shaped - - - -
Pharynx Circular lumen - - Circular lumen, 10 radial + 10 circular fibers Circular lumen, 14–15 circular fibers alternate with inhomogeneous structures, pre- and postpharyngeal sphincters 10 protractors, Pharynx sheath present Circular lumen, 15 radial +15 circular fibers,2 prepharyngeal 1postpharyngeal sphincters Triradiate lumen Triradiate lumen Triradiate lumen
13 radial + 14 circular muscle cell Circular and radial muscular fibers 13 radial + 14 circular muscle cell
1postpharyngeal sphincter 1postpharyngeal sphincter 1postpharyngeal sphincter
Midgut 12-16 longitudinal muscles - - Muscular grid: Inner longitudinal (16) + outer circular (+16) Muscular Grid: Inner longitudinal + outer circular Muscular Grid: Inner longitudinal + outer circular Muscular Grid: inner longitudinal + outer circular - Muscular Grid: inner longitudinal + outer circular
Hindgut - - - 1-2 pairs short dilator muscles 1 dilator muscle 6 dilators: 2 caudal + 2 dorsal 1 frontal 1 circular 4 dilators: 2 caudal + 2dorsal; 2dorsal + 1 ventral transversal muscle cell - 4 dilators: 2 caudal + 2dorsal; 2dorsal + 1 ventral transversal muscle cell
Reference [1] [33] [41, 42] This study [26] [30] [30] [38] [5, 27, 30]
  1. Myoanatomical features observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), light microscopy (LM) or confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Abbreviations: LTS, lateral terminal spines; S, segment; (-) data not available.