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Table 2 Post hoc comparison and effect size statistics of original trials (head-bobbing; HB), simulated trials without head-bobbing (no HB), and simulated trials in which the timing of head-bobbing was inversed (inv. HB)

From: On vision in birds: coordination of head-bobbing and gait stabilises vertical head position in quail

  Mean difference 95% CI of mean difference Significance (Dunnett’s t) Effect size (Cohen’s d)
Vertical displacement of the head
Vaulting     
No HB vs. HB –0.9214 cm ± 0.3319 0.842 0.22
Inv. HB vs. HB 0.3787 cm ± 0.3319 0.021* 0.82
CoM vs. HB –0.2762 cm ± 0.3320 0.123 0.69
Bouncing     
No HB vs. HB 0.3389 cm ± 0.3131 0.03* 0.91
Inv. HB vs. HB 1.3145 cm ± 0.3131 < 0.001*** 1.95
CoM vs. HB 0.5885 cm ± 0.3132 0.944 0.20
Amplitude of E p fluctuation
Vaulting     
No HB vs. HB 0.3639 mJ ± 3.7318 0.964 0.08
Inv. HB vs. HB 0.8127 mJ ± 3.7319 0.837 0.18
Bouncing     
No HB vs. HB 0.9257 mJ ± 2.1613 0.530 0.24
Inv. HB vs. HB 2.8846 mJ ± 2.1614 0.096 0.48
Amplitude of E k fluctuation    
Vaulting     
No HB vs. HB –1.9423 mJ ± 4.3011 0.486 0.35
Inv. HB vs. HB –3.4037 mJ ± 4.3012 0.137 0.67
Bouncing     
No HB vs. HB –2.2789 mJ ± 2.9916 0.159 0.38
Inv. HB vs. HB –2.0391 mJ ± 2.9915 0.223 0.36
  1. *: significant at the p = 0.05 level; ***: significant at the p = 0.001 level.