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Table 1 Characteristics of the goats and number of trials to success

From: Goats excel at learning and remembering a highly novel cognitive task

Goat Breed Horn Sex Age Category Number of trials
1 British Toggenburg No Male 7 Demonstrator 11
2 British Saanen No Male 15 Demonstrator 13
3 British Saanen No Female 7 Demonstrator 22
4 Pygmy Yes Male 8 Demonstrator Removed trial 7
5 British Alpine Yes Female 5 Demonstrator 12
6 Golden Guernsey No Male 10 Observer 10
7 British Toggenburg Yes Female 7 Observer 13
8 British Toggenburg Yes Male 7 Observer Removed trial 12
9 British Alpine Yes Female 7 Observer Lift-lever up step: 10
10 British Toggenburg No Male 9 Control 10
11 Golden Guernsey No Male 6 Control 9
12 Anglo Nubian No Female 11 Control 8
  1. Characteristics of the goats used in the experiment as demonstrators, observers or controls (additional goats tested that were not demonstrators or observers), along with breed, presence of horns, sex and age. The number of trials required to successfully learn the two-step task is indicated. Two goats (4 and 8) were removed from the test because they used an alternative method (horns) to try to obtain the reward and did not learn the lift-lever step. One goat (9) learned the lift-lever step within 10 trials, but did not learn the whole task (two-steps) within 22 trials.