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Table 5 Angular analysis of alignment during urination in all males (pooled data without dog M07 and mean vectors of all males sorted into three categories according to the relative changes of magnetic field declination)

From: Dogs are sensitive to small variations of the Earth’s magnetic field

  Pooled raw data Means per dog (n ≥ 5)
Declination rate 0% 0.1-2% >2% 0% 0.1-2% >2%
Number of observations 491 256 655 22 15 22
Mean vector (μ) 293° 12° 84° 291° 355° 195°
Length of mean vector (r) 0.129 0.08 0.006 0.367 0.349 0.07°
Circular standard deviation 116° 129° 182° 81° 83° 132°
95% Conf. interval (-/+) for μ 265°-321° 310°-74° - 246°-335° 290°-61° 315°-76°
99% Conf. interval (-/+) for μ 256°-329° 290°-94° - 232°-349° 270°-81° 239°-151°
Rayleigh test (Z) 8.17 1.619 0.028 2.959 1.828 0.109
Rayleigh test (p) 2.8310-4 0.198 0.973 0.05 0.162 0.899
Rao’s spacing test (U) 260.285 281.656 283.053 148.258 147.139 127.188
Rao’s spacing test (p) <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 >0.1 >0.1 >0.5