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Table 3 Alignment during defecation in dogs (females and males) in two-hour periods

From: Dogs are sensitive to small variations of the Earth’s magnetic field

Variable All records 20:01–08:00 Quiet MF 20:01–08:00 All records 08:01–12:00 Quiet MF 08:01–12:00 All records 12:01–16:00 Quiet MF 12:01–16:00 All records 16:01–20:00 Quiet MF 16:01–20:00
Number of observations 442 173 599 188 396 109 455 144
Mean vector (μ) 157°/337° 177°/357° 152°/332° 178°/358° 12°/192° 170°/350° 147°/327° 173°/353°
Length of mean vector (r) 0.042 0.239 0.073 0.2 0.074 0.26 0.088 0.176
Circular standard deviation 72° 48° 65° 51° 65° 47° 63° 53°
95% Confidence interval (-/+) for μ 112°-202° 165°-190° 130°-174° 163°-192° 345°-39° 155°-184° 126°-168° 155°-192°
99% Confidence interval (-/+) for μ 98°-217° 161°-193° 123°-181° 159°-106° 337°-48° 151°-189° 119°-175° 149°-198°
Rayleigh test (Z) 0.769 9.866 3.17 7.533 2.145 7.367 3.54 4.474
Rayleigh test (p) 0.463 0.000052 0.042 0.000535 0.117 0.000632 0.029 0.011
  1. Columns denoted “quiet MF (magnetic field)” give statistic values based on analysis of those data from the respective column “all values” which were collected under conditions of stable declination (0% change). Due to small sample sizes for single dogs, the data of all observations done in the given period are pooled. Pooling is justified in this case because samples for respective dogs have comparable sizes and because males and females show comparable posture and alignment during defecation. The data were not sorted here according to months but the distribution of observations during respective months of the year is comparable, so that the distribution of the data (and resulting analysis) would not change if winter and summer observations were further separated. Note random circular distribution of the alignment when all data for respective time periods are analyzed, but highly significant preference for the North–South axis when only observations made under quiet magnetic field are considered.