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Table 2 Axial analysis of alignment during defecation in all dogs (pooled data or mean vectors of particular dogs sorted into three categories according to the rate of changes of magnetic field declination)

From: Dogs are sensitive to small variations of the Earth’s magnetic field

  Pooled raw data Means per dog (n > 5)
Declination rate 0% 0.1-2% >2% 0% 0.1-2% >2%
Number of observations 607 542 744 43 36 39
Mean vector (μ) 176°/356° 111°/291° 109°/289° 173°/353° 104°/184° 96°/276°
Length of mean vector (r) 0.216 0.106 0.03 0.598 0.283 0.194
Circular standard deviation 50° 61° 76° 29° 45° 52°
95% Confidence interval (-/+) for μ 168°-183° - - 164°-182° 81°-127° -
99% Confidence interval (-/+) for μ 166°-185° - - 161°-185° 74°-134° -
Rayleigh test (Z) 28.248 6.133 0.672 15.353 2.891 1.464
Rayleigh test (p) <10-12 0.002 0.511 6.2010-8 0.055 0.233