Analysis of dog body alignment during defecation. Axial analysis of mean vectors of dogs with more than 5 observations. Total data and observations from three different categories of relative changes of the declination of the Earth’s magnetic field are shown from top to bottom (0%, 0.1-2%, >2%).Each pair of opposite dots indicates the axis of the mean vector of all observations of a single dog. The direction (μ) and length (r) of the (grand) mean vector and the p-value of the Rayleigh uniformity test as well as the sample size are given next to each diagram. μ and r are indicated by the direction and length of the blue arrows, respectively. Small inner circles indicate the 5%-significance level of the Rayleigh test. Circle segments at the outer circle represent the 95%-confidence intervals (red circle segments indicate intervals that could not be calculated with confidence due to large circular standard deviations). Statistically significant differences between the distributions according to the Mardia-Watson-Wheeler test are indicated by asterisks (*** = p < 0.001). A significant N-S axial orientation (i.e., 95%-confidence interval includes the N-S axis) can only be seen under conditions of zero declination change. See Tables 1–2 for further details on statistics.