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Table 1 Species-specific predictions (left) and support (right) for different diversification hypotheses modified after Vences et al.[16] for the genus Eulemur

From: Phylogeographic analysis of the true lemurs (genus Eulemur) underlines the role of river catchments for the evolution of micro-endemism in Madagascar

Species Eco-geographic constraints Support Western refugia Support Riverine barrier Support Centers of endemism (river catchments) Support
General Youngest sister lineage is generalists and occurs in different eco-geographic zones; Older sister linages are more specialized; East (humid)-west (dry) phylo-geographic pattern; lineages correspond to eco-geographic regions Partly No gene flow from west to east No Sister lineages occur on either side of a river, low gene flow between sister lineages Partly Lineages occurring in retreat dispersal watersheds (RDW) are sister lineages to lineages occurring in neighboring RDW; glacial cycles during the Pleistocene (< 2.8 mya) allowed gene flow among RDW; sister lineages occur in neighboring river catchments when their headwaters are at low elevations Yes
Eulemur albifrons Lineage distribution corresponds to eco-geographic regions; east- west division No - - Sister lineage to E. sanfordi (Bemarivo), but low gene flow Partly Sister lineage to sanfordi (fulvus) + recent divergence + gene flow to albifrons and fulvus via retreat dispersal watersheds Yes
Eulemur cinereiceps Lineage distribution corresponds to eco-geographic regions; east- west division No - - Sister lineage to E. collaris (Mananara) Yes Sister lineage to collaris + recent divergence Yes
Eulemur collaris Lineage distribution corresponds to eco-geographic regions; east- west division No - - Sister lineage to E. cinereiceps (Mananara) Yes Sister lineage to cinereiceps + recent divergence Yes
Eulemur fulvus Lineage distribution corresponds to eco-geographic regions; east- west division No No gene flow from west to east Probably no (few data) Sister lineage to E. rufifrons (Manangoro), E. rufus (Betsiboka), E. albifrons (Mananara), but low gene flow Partly Gene flow between east and west Probably (not tested)
Eulemur rufifrons Lineage distribution corresponds to eco-geographic regions; east- west division No No gene flow from west to east No Sister lineage to E. rufus (Tsiribihina), but low gene flow Partly Gene flow between east and west Yes
Eulemur rufus Lineage distribution corresponds to eco-geographic regions; east- west division Yes No gene flow from E. rufus to E. rufifrons No Sister lineage to E. rufifrons (Tsiribihina) or fulvus (Betsiboka), but low gene flow Partly Sister linage to rufifrons or fulvus + recent divergence + gene flow to fulvus and/or rufus Yes
Eulemur sanfordi Lineage distribution corresponds to eco-geographic regions; east- west division Yes - - Sister lineage to E. albifrons (Bemarivo) or fulvus (Mahavavy du Nord), but low gene flow Partly Sister lineage to albifrons (fulvus) + recent divergence + gene flow to albifrons via retreat dispersal watersheds Yes
Eulemur rubriventer Sister lineage to fulvus group Yes - - - - - -
Eulemur macaco Lineage distribution corresponds to eco-geographic regions; east- west division No - - Sister lineage to E. flavifrons (Maeverano) Yes Sister lineage to E. flavifrons + recent divergence Yes
Eulemur flavifrons Lineage distribution corresponds to eco-geographic regions; east- west division No - - Sister lineage to E. macaco (Maeverano) Yes Sister lineage to E. macaco + recent divergence Yes
Eulemur coronatus Lineage distribution corresponds to eco-geographic regions; east- west division Yes - - Sister species to E. macaco + E. flavifrons (Mahavavy du nord) yes Sister lineage to macaco/flavifrons + recent divergence Yes
  1. The western refugia hypothesis allowed only to formulate predictions for some of the species. RDW: Retreat dispersal watershed (after Wilmé et al. [15]).