Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Relationships between sleep-wakefulness, age, and PCSK2 expression

From: Linking melanism to brain development: expression of a melanism-related gene in barn owl feather follicles covaries with sleep ontogeny

  Wakefulness Non-REM sleep REM sleep
Percent Bout Duration Percent Bout Duration Percent Bout Duration Latency
Age (sleep) F1,48.96 = 0.02 F 1,58.75 = 10.69 F1,43.15 = 2.48 F 1,52.88 = 11.83 F 1,55.09 = 5.87 F1,46.09 = 0.001 F 1,61.52 = 19.46
p = 0.89 p = 0.002 p = 0.12 p = 0.001 p = 0.019 p = 0.97 p < 0.0001
Age ( PCSK2 ) F1,54.71 = 0.05 F1,52.38 = 0.05 F1,53.97 = 0.005 F1,52.13 = 0.003 F 1,52.28 = 0.39 F1,56.95 = 0.40 F1,51.86 = 0.002
p = 0.83 p = 0.82 p = 0.95 p = 0.96 p = 0.53 p = 0.53 p = 0.97
PCSK2 F1,57.86 = 0.47 F1,56.71 = 1.19 F 1,58.22 = 5.14 F1,57.95 = 3.66 F 1,57.36 = 6.39 F 1,58.91 = 8.49 F1,57.92 = 2.67
p = 0.49 p = 0.28 p = 0.027 p = 0.06 p = 0.014 p = 0.005 p = 0.11
Sex F1,52.46 = 0.0001 F1,52.96 = 0.03 F1,49.1 = 0.002 F1,53.64 = 0.02 F1,53.00 = 0.10 F1,54.10 = 0.21 F1,54.83 = 0.26
p = 0.99 p = 0.88 p = 0.97 p = 0.88 p = 0.75 p = 0.65 p = 0.61
Date F1,30.2 = 2.49 F1,26.43 = 1.25 F1,25.28 = 1.97 F1,23.86 = 0.03 F1,25.72 = 1.52 F1,29.38 = 2.09 F1,22.89 = 0.06
p = 0.13 p = 0.27 p = 0.17 p = 0.87 p = 0.23 p = 0.16 p = 0.81
Temperature (mean) F1,33.29 = 0.27 F1,33.49 = 0.12 F1,30.78 = 0.14 F1,32.94 = 0.50 F1,36.84 = 2.16 F1,30.47 = 0.003 F1,32.81 = 0.81
p = 0.60 p = 0.73 p = 0.71 p = 0.49 p = 0.15 p = 0.96 p = 0.37
Nest (% variance) 15.7 14.5 1.1 14.4 22.3 8.5 22.3
  1. Linear mixed models for the relationships between the percentage of time spent in and mean bout duration of each state, and expression of PCSK2 in feather follicles. For REM sleep, the mean latency from sleep onset is also shown. Nest of rearing was set as a random variable. The variables “Age (sleep)” and “Age (PCSK2)” are the ages when we measured nestling sleep and PCSK2 expression, respectively. Significant results of final models are highlighted in bold. The other variables were backward removed starting with the least significant ones. Also shown is the percentage of variance explained by the random factor nest of rearing. This value indicates the extent to which sleep variables of different nest-mates are similar. Mean temperature did not correlate with any sleep variable (see also Additional file 1: Figure S3).