Skip to main content

Table 3 Head position of mallard ducks in the four phases of landing flight as estimated from photos available in the internet

From: Directional compass preference for landing in water birds

  Approach I Approach II Gearing Touchdown
Number of observations 12 14 38 27
Mean vector (μ) 118° 117° 115° 114°
Length of mean vector (r) 0.991 0.993 0.994 0.995
Circular standard deviation
Rayleigh test (p) 2.54 × 10-11 < 1012 7.9 × 10-7 1.67 × 10-6
  1. The mean vector μ refers to the smallest angle between the line connecting the eye and the tip of the beak and the horizon (90°).