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Table 2 PGLS models testing the effect of food load manipulation ability (0 = UtM; 1 = AtM) on flight muscle ratio (FMR) and (log 10 -transformed) wing-loading (WL), while controlling for wet body mass (log 10 -transformed)

From: Food load manipulation ability shapes flight morphology in females of central-place foraging Hymenoptera

Model Estimate (s.e.) t P λ
FMR (n = 27 species)
Food load manipulation ability -0.059 (0.016) -3.71 0.001 0.01
Body mass 0.013 (0.021) 0.64 0.53  
WL (n = 24 species)
Food load manipulation ability 0.148 (0.059) 2.49 0.021 0.70
Body mass 0.278 (0.053) 5.25 < 0.001  
  1. The maximum likelihood estimate value of λ, assessing the degree of phylogenetic dependence among the tested variables (see Materials and methods), is shown for each model.