Aggression of Crematogaster modiglianii (colony R0) against intracolonial Ca. rufifemur R0 (white boxes), allocolonial red Ca. rufifemur R2 and allocolonial black Ca. rufifemur B2 (grey boxes each). Dead ants, total cuticular extracts, cuticular hydrocarbons and cuticular crematoenones were tested. Each plot represents 10 replicates. ‘control’: Dummies treated with pure hexane. Intracolonial treatments and hexane controls are represented by empty plots, allocolonial treatments by grey plots. Effect sizes (F values) are given above each pairwise comparison. Asterisks denote significant differences according to pairwise GLM comparisons (all df = 1). ***p < 0.0001, **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05, ‘n.s.’ p > 0.1.