Aggression of two Camponotus rufifemur colonies ((a) colony B1, (b) colony B3), (c) colony R1) towards intracolonial and allocolonial Crematogaster modiglianii . Dead ants, total cuticular extracts, cuticular hydrocarbons and cuticular crematoenones were tested. Each plot represents 10 replicates. ‘mix’: Hydrocarbons (non-polar fraction) and crematoenones (polar fraction) mixed. ‘control’: Dummies treated with pure hexane. Intracolonial treatments and hexane controls are represented by empty plots, allocolonial treatments by grey plots. Effect sizes (F values) are given above each pairwise comparison. Asterisks denote significant differences according to pairwise GLM comparisons (all df = 1). ***p < 0.0001, **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05, ‘n.s.’ p > 0.1.