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Table 2 Larger mammal species from across African savannah grasslands and woodlands showing phylogeographic pattern, with some indication of their phylogenetic structure and possible divergence times, refugia in west W, east E, and south S, and genetic signals of colonization and population history. LP = Late Pleistocene, MP = Mid Pleistocene, EP = Early Pleistocene, → = colonization/expansion. MS = mismatch expansion. All studies used d-loop mtDNA; also elephant used cytb and microsats, impala cytb, warthog and dog microsats, and buffalo Y.

From: The structure of biodiversity – insights from molecular phylogeography

Species Phylogenetic structure Likely Refugia (fossil evidence *) Genetic signals of range changes Reference
Hartebeest
Alcelaphus buselaphus
3 step clades
W→S→E,
W, E subdiv, S,
*0.7 My>
S→, E→,
some shallow clades
Arctander et al [83]
Topi
Damaliscus lunatus
3 clades
S→E (+ S)
(W), E, S,
*0.7 My>
S→, 2 clades, MS
E→, shallow clade, MS
Arctander et al [83]
Wildebeest
Connochaetes taurinus
2 clades, S→E,
S structured
E, S,
*1.5 My>
S→E, MS in E
LP
Arctander et al [83]
Kob (& Puku)
Kobus kobus sl
3 clades,
W→E + S
W, E, S
* EP>
W↔E several times,
lineage mixing, MP LP
Birungi & Arctander [108]
Greater Kudu
Tragelaphus strepsiceros
3 clades,
E, SW→S→E
E, S,
SW isolate
*widespread
S→E LP
shallow clades
diversity S>E
Nersting & Arctander [84]
Impala
Aepyceros melampus
2 clades,
SW, S→E
(E), S
SW isolate
*widespread
S→E LP
network cluster E
diversity S>E
Nersting & Arctander [84]
Wild dog
Lycaon pictus
2 shallow clades,
E, S,
few haplotypes
(W), E, S W→E&S?, 340 ky>
each clade 70 ky>
mobile – mixing
Girman et al [89]
Buffalo
Syncerus caffer
2 shallow clusters
W→E+S
S nested in E
W, E, S,
* LP
W→E <180 ky
E→S twice <130 ky
MS LP
Van Hooft et al [85]
Elephant
Loxodonta africana
3–5 clades
W→E+S→W
W, E, S,
*EP
*LP→
W→S&E, EP
W→S&E, MP
E→W, LP
Nyakaana et al [109]
Eggert et al [88]
Warthog
Phacochoerus africanus
3 distinct clades
W→S→E
W, E, S,
*0.78 My>
*0.4 My→
3 clades isolated MP by dry climate
contract/expand LP
Muwanika et al [87]