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Table 1 Animal species with Holarctic ranges showing distinct phylogeographic pattern, with some indication of their possible divergence times, glacial refugia and genetic signals of population history. CA = Circumarctic, HA = High Arctic. PA = Palearctic, NA = Nearctic, BE = Beringia, GL = Greenland, NT = North Temperate.

From: The structure of biodiversity – insights from molecular phylogeography

Species Range Phylogenetic Divergence (Myr) Likely Refugia
(fossil evidence *)
Genetic signals of range changes Authors & Reference
Larus argentatus spp
Herring gull complex
CA HA
(+EurAsia Lakes)
9 clades
<0.5%
(0.1–0.3)
Atlantic
Aralo-Caspian
Allopatric fragmentation
Bimodal mismatch
Recent expansions
Hybridizations
Liebers et al [96]
Rangifer tarandus
tundra reindeer
CA HA
7 clades
1–2%
(0.1–0.3)
Beringia-Asia *
W EurAsia*
N America
150 kyr expand
15 kyr expand
Ragged mismatch
Gravlund et al [97]
Flagstad & Roed [98]
Lemmus ssp
true lemmings HA PA
NA
4 clades
3.8–7.9%
(0.5–1.0)
Beringia
E Asia
Siberia*
N America*
Expand
Few haplotypes
Few haplotypes
Expand
Fedorov et al [99]
Dichrostonyx ssp
collared lemmings HA
PA NA GL
6 clades
1–7%
(0.1–1.0)
Beringia*
Arctic Islands
E Asia
C&W Siberia*
Not to east
Expand
Low diversity
Low diversity
Fedorov & Stenseth [100]
Microtus oeconomus
root/tundra vole
HA PA BE
4 clades
2.0–3.5%
(0.2–0.6)
Beringia
S Urals*
Caucasus
C Europe*
Not far
Few haplotypes
N expansion
N expansion
Brunhoff et al [101]
Microtus agrestis
field vole
not HA, PA
3 clades
0.5–5.2%
(0.1–0.6)
S Urals*
Carpathians*
Iberia
Across Asia
N&W expansion
Not far
Jaarola & Searle [102]
Lagopus mutus
rock ptarmigan
CA HA
7 clades
0.21–1.12%
(0.05–0.1)
Multiple, eg Greenland – Beringia/Aleuts
Siberia
Several recent Expansions
Only 4% diversity within lineages
Holder et al [103, 104]
Calidris alpina
Dunlin (migrant)
CA
5 clades
1.1–3.3%
(0.1–0.3)
W Africa
Arabia
SE Asia
C America
W EurAsia
Siberia
Beringia
Canada
Wennerberg [105]
Wenink et al [106]
Daphnia pulex
Waterflea (clonal)
CA HA
7 clades
0.5–3%
(0.2–1.5)
Periglacial
Some more local clones
Mixing, but some N Amer/Eurasian difference Weider et al [107]
Troglodytes troglodytes
Winter wren
NT not HA
EurAsia BE N Amer
6 clades
3.0–8.9%
(0.5–1.6)
NW Amer
NE Amer
NE Asia
C Asia, S Europe
Series of glacial vicariances
Recent expansions
Drovetski et al [38]
Cleithrionomys rutilus/glareolus/gapperi
red-backed voles
HA PA NA BE
12 clades
1–10%
(0.1–1.8)
C Europe*
E Asia*
Beringia
N Amer*
Several colonizations of N Amer across Beringia from Asia Cook et al [37]